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Sådan debatterer du for begyndere - stift din første debat | 7 trin m 10 tips

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Ellie Tran 05 oktober, 2023 13 min læs

Hvordan debatterer man for begyndere? Arguing is a big, big topic. If you've never done one before, it can be overwhelming to think of what will happen and how you can avoid looking totally clueless in front of everyone.

There is much to learn before you can pluck up the courage to stand at the podium. But don't worry; this debate for beginners guide will give you the steps, tips and examples you need to slay your next debate. So, let's check out these lovely debate tips!

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Sådan fungerer en debat for begyndere (i 7 trin)

Before you get into how to phrase your arguments like a pro, you'll need to know about how a beginners' debate works. Check out these 7 steps to a debate for newbies and what you'll need to do along the way, then you'll completely understand how to be a better debater!

1. Formålet er besluttet

illustration af 2 personer, der har en debat bag 2 podier
Tips til debattører

As we can use debates in many places and situations, such as in schools, company meetings, panel discussions or political bodies, it's crucial that the primary purposes of the debate is chosen first. This can give a clear view of plan and organise the debates because there are a lot of details to work on later, all of which need to be in alignment.

So, before anything, the facilitator will answer this - hvad er målene med denne debat?

Hvis du for eksempel er i en studenterdebat, the goals should be the same as your lesson, which can be to encourage students' critical thinking and public speaking skills. If it's at work, it can be to decide which of two ideas to go with.

2. Strukturen er valgt

Asking how to debate well, you need to have a structure. There are a lot of debate structure variations out there, and multiple formats within them. It's important for you to know some basic terms used in many common types of debates first before preparing for a debate...

  • Emne - Every debate has a topic, which is formally called a bevægelse or resolution. The topic can be a statement, a policy or an idea, it's up to the setting and purpose of the debate.
  • to hold - Bekræftende (støtter forslaget) og Negativ (modsætter sig forslaget). I mange tilfælde består hvert hold af tre medlemmer.
  • Dommere or Bedømmere: De mennesker, der bedømmer kvaliteten af ​​argumenterne i debattørernes beviser og præstationer.
  • timekeeper - The person who keeps track of time and stops the teams when time's up.
  • Observatører - There can be observers (an audience) in the debate, but they are not allowed to chime in.

Til en begynderdebat, efter at have modtaget forslaget, vil holdene have tid til at forberede sig. Det Bekræftende hold starter debatten med deres første taler, efterfulgt af den første taler fra Negativ hold. Så går den til den anden højttaler i Bekræftende hold, tilbage til den anden taler i Negativ hold og så videre.

Hver taler vil tale og fremlægge deres pointer inden for den fastsatte tid, der er angivet i debatreglerne. Husk at ikke alle debatter afsluttes med team Negativ; nogle gange, hold Bekræftende vil blive bedt om at afslutte.

As you're probably new to this, you can find the debate process for beginners jf. nedenstående. It's easy to follow and can be used in lots of different types of debate.

3. Debatplanen er lavet

For the debate to run smoothly, the facilitator will have a plan that's så detaljeret som muligt. They should let you know this plan, as it will help to visualise everything and keep you from going off track, which is super easy to do when you're taking part in a beginners' debate.

Here's a simple checklist of what a plan should contain:

  • Formålet med debatten
  • Strukturen
  • Hvordan rummet vil blive indrettet
  • Tidslinjen og timingen for hver periode
  • Formelle debatregler og instrukser for talerne og bedømmerne
  • Skabeloner til notetagning for rollerne
  • Resuméet for at afslutte debatten, når den slutter

4. Rummet er indrettet

The environment is essential for a debate as it can affect speakers' performance to some degree.

Your debate should have as professional an atmosphere as possible. There are many ways to set up a debate room, but whichever setup is chosen, it will all centre around the 'speaker area' in the middle. This is where all the debating magic will happen.

Hver højttaler, der repræsenterer de to hold, vil stå i højttalerområdet under deres tur og vende tilbage til deres plads, når de er færdige.

Nedenfor er en populært layout eksempel til en begynderdebat:

indretningen af ​​et debatrumsopsætning
Billede venligst udlånt af Debatterer SA.

Of course, there's always the option to hold a debate online. You may struggle to feel the same atmosphere in an online beginners' debate, but there are some ways to spice it up:

  • Baggrundstilpasning: Hver rolle kan have en anden Zoom-baggrund: værten, tidtageren, dommerne og hvert hold. Dette kan være med til at differentiere hver enkelt deltagers roller og inspirere til en vis stolthed over den rolle, der gives.
  • Understøttende enheder:
    • Timer: Timing er vigtig i en debat, især for nybegyndere på deres første timeout. Din facilitator kan beslutte at holde styr på dit tempo med en timer på skærmen (selvom i de fleste debatter signalerer tidtageren bare, når der er 1 minut eller 30 sekunder tilbage).
    • Lydeffekter: Husk, dette er kun en debat for begyndere. Du kan forvente, at din facilitator letter atmosfæren med opmuntrende klappende lydeffekter når en taler afslutter sin tale.

5. Holdene udvælges

Holdene vil blive opdelt i Bekræftende og Negativ. Normalt er holdene og talerpositionerne inden for disse hold randomiserede, så din facilitator kan bruge en spinnerhjul at gøre processen mere spændende og engagerende.

ved at bruge AhaSlides' spinnerhjul til at opdele hold i debat for begyndere

After the two teams have been chosen, the motion will be announced and you'll be given some time to prepare, ideally one hour.

I denne tid vil facilitatoren pege på mange forskellige ressourcer, så teams kan forstå konteksten og problemerne for at fremsætte stærkere pointer. Jo mere du ved, jo mere energisk bliver debatten.

6. Debatten starter

Hver anden type debat kræver et andet format, og der kan være mange variationer. Nedenfor er en meget populær version, som kan bruges i enhver debat for begyndere.

Each team has four turns to speak in this debate, so it's best to have 6 or 8 speakers. In the case of 6, two debaters will speak twice.

TaleTidDebattørernes ansvar
1. Bekræftende Konstruktiv8 minIntroducer bevægelsen og deres synspunkt
Giv deres definitioner af nøglebegreber
Fremfør deres argumenter til støtte for forslaget
1. negativ konstruktiv8 minAngiv deres argumenter for at modsætte sig forslaget
2. Bekræftende Konstruktiv8 minLayout further arguments in support of the motion and the team's opinions
Identificer konfliktområder
Besvar spørgsmål fra den negative taler (hvis nogen)
2. Negativ Konstruktiv8 minLayout further arguments against the motion and enhance the team's opinions
Identificer konfliktområder
Besvar spørgsmål fra den bekræftende taler (hvis nogen)
1. negativ modbevisning4 minForsvar Negativ team's arguments and defeat the supporting arguments without adding new arguments or information
1. bekræftende gendrivelse4 minForsvar Bekræftende team's arguments and defeat the opposing arguments without adding new arguments or information
2. Negativ Afvisning
(Afsluttende erklæring)
4 minHar en anden afvisning og afsluttende udtalelser
2. bekræftende gendrivelse
(Afsluttende erklæring)
4 minHar en anden afvisning og afsluttende udtalelser

💡 Der kan være kort tid til at forberede sig før afvisningerne, afhængig af reglerne.

Du kan se et videoeksempel på dette format Her nede.

7. Døm Debatten

It's time for the adjudicators to work. They need to observe the debates and performance of each debater then assess. These are some of the things that they will be looking at in your performance...

  • Organisation og overskuelighed - The structure behind your speech - does it make sense to lay it out the way you did?
  • Indhold - This arguments, evidence, cross examination and rebuttals you produce.
  • Leverings- og præsentationsstil - How you deliver your points, including oral and body language, eye content, and tone used.

10 tips til nye debattører

Nobody can master everything from the beginning and if you've never debated in your life, things are not easy to get started with. Below are 10 hurtige råd at finde ud af, hvordan man debatterer effektivt og kan følge nybegyndere i enhver debat.

#1 - Forberedelse er nøglen - Research the topic en masse på forhånd for at få ikke bare baggrundsinformation, men også selvtillid. Dette kan hjælpe uerfarne debattører med at forstå problemerne bedre for at være gode modbegyndere, derefter udarbejde deres argumenter, finde beviser og undgå at gå ned i kaninhuller. Enhver debattør bør skitsere alt i punkter (ideelt set 3 point for 3 argumenter) for bedre at arrangere ideer og se det 'store billede' af deres tale.

#2 - Hold alt ved emnet - One of the sins of debating is going off track, as it wastes valuable speaking time and weakens the argument. Pay attention to the outlines and main points to make sure they follow the topic and address the right problems.

#3 - Kom med dine pointer med eksempler - Having examples makes your debate sentences more convincing, and also, people see things more clearly, like denne example below...

Illustration af et papir med beviser og et flueben på
Billede venligst udlånt af Wikihow

#4 - Prøv at tænke som modstanderne - While revising ideas, think of points the opposition may pose. Identify a few and write down a mind map of rebuttals that you could offer if they do ende med at gøre disse pointer.

#5 - Hav en stærk konklusion - End the debate with a few good sentences, which can at least sum up the main points. In many cases, debaters like to conclude with power, with one poetically crafted sentence to cause that mikrofondråbe øjeblik (se et eksempel på dette nedenfor).

#6 - Vær selvsikker (eller falsk det, indtil du klarer det!) - One of the most important things about how to be better at debating is the vibe. Debaters need to be confident with what they’re saying, as swagger has a great sway over judges and observers. Of course, the more you prepare, the more confident you are.

#7 - Tal langsomt - A very common problem of novice debaters is their talking speed. More often than not on the first time round, it's way too fast, which causes both listeners and the speaker anxiety. Take a breath and speak slowly. You may get less out, but what you do produce will have gravitas.

#8 - Brug din krop og dit ansigt - Body language can support your points and show confidence. Look the opponents in the eyes, have a nice standing posture and control the facial expressions (don’t get too aggressive) to catch attention.

#9 - Lyt godt efter og tag noter - Debaters must pay attention to every speech and idea to follow the pace, support their teammates and rebut the opponents better. Having notes can help a lot, as no one can remember every point to rebut or further expand. Remember to note down key points only.

#10 - Undgå billige billeder - Focus and rebut your opponents’ arguments, not the opponents themselves. No debaters should be offensive towards others; it shows a lack of professionalism and you'll definitely be marked down for it.

6 stilarter af begynderdebatter

Der er mange stilarter af debatter med forskellige formater og regler. At kende nogle af dem grundigt kan hjælpe begynderdebattører med at se processen, og hvad de skal gøre. Her er nogle almindelige debatstile, du måske ser i din første debat!

1. Politisk debat - This is a common type that requires a lot of research. The debate revolves around whether or not to enact a particular policy, and usually in the form of two people more team. Politisk debat is used in many schools because it's practical, and the rules are easier to follow than other types.

2. Folketingsdebat - This debate style is based on the British government model and the debates in the British Parliament. First adopted by British universities, now this is the official debate style of many big debating competitions like The World University Debating Championship and European Universities Debating Championship. Such debate is witty and shorter than the traditional politik debat, hvilket gør det velegnet til mange tilfælde, fra mellemskoler til universiteter.

Britisk parlamentarisk debatstil
Billede venligst udlånt af Oxford Scholastica Academy.

3. Offentlig forumdebat - In this style, two teams debate some 'hot' and controversial topics or current event issues. These topics are the ones you already probably have an opinion about, so this type of debate is more accessible than a politik debat.

4. Lincoln Douglas debat- This is an open, one-on-one debate style, named after a famous series of debates back in 1858 between the U.S. Senate candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. In this style, debaters focus on more profound or more philosophical questions, mainly about significant issues.

5. Spontan argument - Two debaters argue on one particular topic; they need to frame their arguments in a very short time and quickly respond to their opponents' ideas without much preparation. It requires strong argumentative skills and can help boost confidence and conquer stage fright.

6. Congressional debat - This style is a simulation of the U.S. legislature, in which the debaters emulate Congress members. They debate pieces of legislation, including bills (proposed laws), resolutions (position statements). The mock Congress then vote to pass into law and continue to vote for or against the legislation.

2 Eksempler på debat

Here we have two examples of some debates for you to better see how they happen...

1. Britisk parlamentsdebat

This is a short clip of a debate between former British prime minister Theresa May and former leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn. The debate's dynamic atmosphere and heated arguments are typical of this kind of rowdy debate. Also, May ended her speech with such a strong statement that she even went viral!

2. Debattørerne

Elevdebatter are becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon at school; some well performed debates can even be as engaging as debates from adults. This video is one episode from an English-language Vietnamese debate show - The Debaters. These high school students debated the motion 'We applaud Greta Thunberg' in a pretty common 3-on-3 format.

So, that's how to debate for beginners!