Are you a participant?

10 Methods of Data Presentation (+ Examples & 5 Great Tips)

10 Methods of Data Presentation (+ Examples & 5 Great Tips)

Work

Leah Nguyen 16 Jun 2022 9 min read

Have you ever presented a data report to your boss/coworkers/teachers thinking it was super dope, like you’re some kind of cyber hacker living in the Matrix, but all they saw was a pile of static numbers that seemed pointless and don’t make sense to them?

Understanding digits is tough. Making people from non-analytical backgrounds understand those digits is even harder.

How can you clear up those confusing numbers in a chart that has the flawless clarity as of a diamond? 💎

You can put an end to deathly boring and ineffective data presentation right now with our 10 methods of data presentation.Check out the examples from each method!

What is Data Presentation?

The term ’data presentation’ relates to the way you present data in a way that makes even the most clueless person in the room understand. 

Some say it’s witchcraft (you’re manipulating the numbers in some ways), but we’ll just say it’s the power of turning dry, hard numbers or digits into a visual showcase that is easy for people to digest.

Presenting data the right way can help your audience understand complicated processes, identify trends, and instantly pinpoint whatever is going on without exhausting their brains.

Good data presentation helps…

  • Make informed decisions and arrive at positive outcomes. If you see the sales of your product steadily increase throughout the years, it’s best to keep milking it or start turning it into a bunch of spin-offs (shoutout to Star Wars👀).
  • Reduce the time spent processing data. Humans can digest information graphically 60,000 times faster than in the form of text. Grant them the power of skimming through a decade of data in minutes with some extra spicy graphs and charts.
  • Communicate the results clearly. Data does not lie. They’re based on factual evidence and therefore if anyone keeps whining that you might be wrong, slap them with some hard data to keep their mouths shut.
  • Add to or expand the current research. You can see what areas need improvement, as well as what details often go unnoticed while surfing through those little lines, dots or icons that appear on the data board.

Methods of Data Presentation and Examples

Imagine you have a delicious pepperoni, extra-cheese pizza. You can decide to cut it into the classic 8 triangle slices, the party style 12 square slices, or get creative and abstract on those slices. 

There are various ways for cutting a pizza and you get the same variety with how you present your data. In this section, we will bring you the 10 ways to slice a pizza – we mean to present your data – that will make your company’s most important asset as clear as day.

#1 – Tabular 

Tabular data is data presented in rows and columns. Excel or Google Sheets would qualify for the job. Nothing fancy.

a table displaying the changes in revenue between the year 2017 and 2018 in the East, West, North, and South region
Image source: BenCollins

This is an example of a tabular presentation of data on Google Sheets. Each row and column has an attribute (year, region, revenue, etc.), and you can do a custom format to see the change in revenue throughout the year.

#2 – Text

When presenting data as text, all you do is write your findings down in paragraphs and bullet points, and that’s it. A piece of cake to you, a tough nut to crack for whoever has to go through all of the reading to get to the point.

  • 65% of email users worldwide access their email via a mobile device.
  • Emails that are optimised for mobile generate 15% higher click-through rates.
  • 56% of brands using emojis in their email subject lines had a higher open rate.

All the above quotes present statistical information in textual form. Since not many people like going through a wall of texts, you’ll have to figure out another route when deciding to use this method, such as breaking the data down into short, clear statements, or even as catchy puns if you’ve got the time to think of them.

#3 – Pie chart

A pie chart (or a ‘donut chart’ if you stick a hole in the middle of it) is a circle divided into slices that show the relative sizes of data within a whole. . If you’re using it to show percentages, make sure all the slices add up to 100%.

a screenshot of the pie chart made from AhaSlides presentation software
Image source: AhaSlides

The pie chart is a familiar face at every party and is usually recognised by most people. However, one setback of using this method is our eyes sometimes can’t identify the differences in slices of a circle, and it’s nearly impossible to compare similar slices from two different pie charts, making them the villains in the eyes of data analysts.

a half-eaten pie chart
Image source: DataVis.ca

Bonus example: A literal ‘pie’ chart! 🥧

#4 – Bar chart

The bar chart is a chart that presents a bunch of items from the same category, usually in the form of rectangular bars that are placed at an equal distance from each other. Their heights or lengths depict the values they represent.

They can be as simple as this:

a simple bar chart example
Image source: Twinkl

Or more complex and detailed like this example of presentation of data. This one is a grouped bar chart that not only allows you to compare categories but also the groups within them as well.

an example of a grouped bar chart
Image source: Twinkl

#5 – Histogram

Similar in appearance to the bar chart but the rectangular bars in histograms don’t often have the gap like their counterparts.

Instead of measuring categories like weather preferences or favourite films as a bar chart does, a histogram only measures things that can be put into numbers.

an example of a histogram chart showing the distribution of students' score for the IQ test
Image source: SPSS Tutorials

Teachers can use a histogram to see which score group most of the students fall into, like in this example above.

#6 – Line graph

Line graphs are represented by a group of data points joined together by a straight line. There can be one or more lines to compare how several related things change over time. 

an example of the line graph showing the population of bears from 2017 to 2022
Image source: Excel Easy

On a line chart’s horizontal axis, you usually have text labels, dates or years, while the vertical axis usually represents the quantity (e.g.: budget, temperature or percentage).

#7 – Pictogram graph

A pictogram graph uses pictures or icons relating to the main topic to visualise a small dataset. The fun combination of colours and illustrations makes it a frequent use at schools.

How to Create Pictographs and Icon Arrays in Visme-6 pictograph maker
Image source: Visme

Pictograms are a breath of fresh air if you want to stay away from the monotonous line chart or bar chart for a while. However, they can present a very limited amount of data and sometimes they are only there for displays and do not represent real statistics.

#8 – Radar chart

If presenting five or more variables in the form of a bar chart is too stuffy then you should try using a radar chart. 

Radar charts show data in terms of how they compare to each other starting from the same point. Some also call them ‘spider charts’ because each aspect combined looks like a spider web.

a radar chart showing the text scores between two students
Image source: GrapeCity

Radar charts can be a great use for parents who’d like to compare their child’s grades with their peers to lower their self-esteem. You can see that each angular represents a subject with a score value ranging from 0 to 100. Each student’s score across 5 subjects is highlighted in a different colour.

a radar chart showing the power distribution of a Pokemon
Image source: iMore

If you think that this method of data presentation somehow feels familiar, then you’ve probably encountered one while playing Pokémon.

#9 – Heat map

A heat map represents data density in colours. The bigger the number, the more colour intense that data will be represented.

a heatmap showing the electoral votes among the states between two candidates
Image source: AnyChart

Most U.S citizens would be familiar with this data presentation method in geography. For elections, many news outlets assign a specific colour code to a state, with blue representing one candidate and red representing the other. The shade of either blue or red in each state shows the strength of the overall vote in that state.

a heatmap showing which parts the visitors click on in a website
Image source: B2C

Another great thing you can use a heat map for is to map what visitors to your site click on. The more a particular section is clicked the ‘hotter’ the colour will turn, from blue to bright yellow to red.

#10 – Scatter plot

If you present your data in dots instead of chunky bars, you’ll have a scatter plot. 

A scatter plot is a grid with several inputs showing the relationship between two variables. It’s good at collecting seemingly random data and revealing some telling trends.

a scatter plot example showing the relationship between beach visitors each day and the average daily temperature
Image source: CQE Academy

For example, in this graph, each dot shows the average daily temperature versus the number of beach visitors across several days. You can see that the dots get higher as the temperature increases, so it’s likely that hotter weather leads to more visitors.

5 Data Presentation Mistakes to Avoid

#1 – Assume your audience understands what the numbers represent

You may know all the behind-the-scenes of your data since you’ve worked with them for weeks, but your audience doesn’t.

a sales data board from Looker
Are you sure people from different departments such as Marketing or Customer Services would understand your Sales Data Board? (image source: Looker)

Showing without telling only invites more and more questions from your audience, as they have to constantly make sense of your data, wasting the time of both sides as a result.

Tell them what the data are about before hitting them with waves of numbers first. You can use interactive activities such as polls, word clouds and Q&A sections to assess their understanding of the data and address any confusion beforehand.

#2 – Use the wrong type of chart

Charts such as pie charts must have a total of 100% so if your numbers accumulate to 193% like this example below, you’re definitely doing it wrong.

a bad example of using a pie chart in the 2012 presidential run
 One of the reasons why not everyone is suited to be a data analyst👆

Before making a chart, ask yourself: what do I want to accomplish with my data? Do you want to see the relationship between the data sets, show the up and down trends of your data, or see how segments of one thing make up a whole?

Remember, clarity always comes first. Some data visualisations may look cool, but if they don’t fit your data, steer clear of them. 

#3 – Make it 3D

The third dimension is cool, but full of risks.

Image source: Origin Lab

Can you see what’s behind those red bars? Because we can’t either. You may think that 3D charts add more depth to the design, but they can create false perceptions as our eyes see 3D objects closer and bigger than they appear, not to mention they cannot be seen from multiple angles.

#4 – Use different types of charts to compare contents in the same category

Image source: Infragistics

This is like comparing a fish to a monkey. Your audience won’t be able to identify the differences and make an appropriate correlation between the two data sets. 

Next time, stick to one type of data presentation only. Avoid the temptation of trying various data visualisation methods in one go and make your data as accessible as possible.

#5 – Bombard the audience with too much information

The goal of data presentation is to make complex topics much easier to understand, and if you’re bringing too much information to the table, you’re missing the point.

The more information you give, the more time it will take for your audience to process it all. If you want to make your data understandable and give your audience a chance to remember it, keep the information within it to an absolute minimum.

What is the Best Method of Data Presentation?

The answer is…

.

.

.

There is none 😄 Each type of presentation has its own strengths and weaknesses and the one you choose greatly depends on what you’re trying to do. 

For example:

  • Go for a scatter plot if you’re exploring the relationship between different data values, like seeing whether the sales of ice cream go up because of the temperature or because people are just getting more hungry and greedy each day?
  • Go for a line graph if you want to mark a trend over time. 
  • Go for a heat map if you like some fancy visualisation of the changes in a geographical location, or to see your visitors’ behaviour on your website.
  • Go for a pie chart (especially in 3D) if you want to be shunned by others because it was never a good idea👇
example of how a bad pie chart represents the data in a complicated way
Image source: Olga Rudakova

Use this reference code when you checkout: AHAXMAS21